COVID-19 is a pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2, a virus that has 80% homology with SARS-CoV


The current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has become a major public health crisis over the past few months. Overall case fatality rates range between 2–6%; however, the rates are higher in the elderly and those with underlying comorbidities like diabetes, hypertension and heart disease. Recent reports showed that about 2–11% of patients with COVID-19 had underlying chronic liver disease. During the previous SARS epidemic, around 60% of patients were reported to develop various degrees of liver damage. In the current pandemic, hepatic dysfunction has been seen in 14–53% of patients with COVID-19, particularly in those with severe disease. Cases of acute liver injury have been reported and are associated with higher mortality. Hepatic involvement in COVID-19 could be related to the direct cytopathic effect of the virus, an uncontrolled immune reaction, sepsis or drug-induced liver injury. The postulated mechanism of viral entry is through the host angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors that are abundantly present in type 2 alveolar cells. Interestingly, ACE2 receptors are expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, vascular endothelium and cholangiocytes of the liver. The effects of COVID-19 on underlying chronic liver disease require detailed evaluation and, with data currently lacking, further research is warranted in this area.