Acute adhesive intestinal obstruction (AAIO) is one of the unsolved issues of modern surgery. This pathology accounts for 3.6–9.4% of the total number of patients who applied for surgical care. We have assessed the true incidence rate and calculated the standardized risk of developing an adhesive process with clinically significant manifestations of intestinal obstruction. Complications development cases analysis was carried out among a group of patients (80 people) operated on during the period from 2015 to 2019. Analysis of data on previous surgical interventions depending on the presence of peritonitis showed that 63 patients had diffuse general or localized peritonitis. 17 patients did not have peritonitis. After diffuse or general peritonitis, the incidence of AAIO was 1.52% (25/1641), after localized peritonitis 0.37% (38/10347), and in its absence 0.29% (17/5964). Thus, the incidence rate of AAIO over a five-year follow-up period directly depends on the prevalence of peritonitis. So, in its absence, the frequency was 0.29%, and in diffuse or general peritonitis it was 1.52%, which is 5 times more.
The risk of developing AAIO per 1000 interventions with diffuse or general peritonitis is significantly higher (t=2.51; p<0.05) than with localized peritonitis and without peritonitis (t=2.95; p<0.05). However, the indicators between localized peritonitis (1.5±0.39%) and its absence (0.7±0.34%) did not reveal a significant difference (t=1.71; p>0.05).