liver, anemia, hemolytic, aplastic, hepatology


 Anemia is a common finding among patients with liver diseases. Patients who suffer from anemia are at a higher risk of liver function decompensation
and hospitalization. It affects significantly their quality of life and contributes to mortality. Anemia is present in 70% of patients with liver cirrhosis and with varying incidence accompanies other liver disorders. As the etiology of anemia in liver diseases is multifactorial, various cases represent different clinical entities. Anemia accompanying hepatic disorders can be broadly divided into several types, such as anemia associated with blood loss, as well as aplastic, hemolytic and micronutrient deficiency anemia. However, it is sometimes difficult to delineate between those types in the clinical practice, as several pathophysiological causes can be present in one patient. It is reported that the most common cause of anemia in liver disease is blood loss and iron deficiency. Still, the incidence of unclear cases reaching over 50% suggests that other types of anemia can be underdiagnosed. This review
comprehensively describes less frequent types of anemia associated with liver disease, namely hemolytic and aplastic anemia (AA). Hemolytic anemia can
complicate autoimmune liver diseases or be a manifestation of membranopathy of red blood cells, dependent on severe hepatic function impairment or alcoholic liver disease. Aplastic anemia is best known as a sequela of viral hepatitis, but some degree of bone marrow inhibition can complicate virtually all advanced liver diseases.