Kidney damage is very likely in people with diabetes who have undergone a new infection, and the risk of developing acute renal injury is associated with mortality. Potential mechanisms of kidney involvement in the clinical picture of the disease may include cytokine damage, cross-organ damage, and systemic effects that determine the treatment strategy. These mechanisms are closely interrelated and are important for individuals on extracorporeal therapy and kidney transplants. Autopsy data provide evidence of SARS-CoV-2 virus invasion into kidney tissue with damage to tubular epithelium cells and podocytes, and red blood cell aggregation in severely COVID-19 patients. By including individuals with chronic kidney disease in planned COVID-19 research protocols, an evidence base for effective and safe treatments can be generated.